T. Bayartugs, Ch. Battuvshin, R. Enkhbat Quadratic optimization over a polyhedral set International Mathematical Forum, Vol. 9, 2014, no. 13, 621-629 http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/imf.2014.4234
Evaluating the symptoms of Dutch disease in Mongolian economy
University of the Humanities
The main goal of this research work is to define whether the Dutch disease is apparent in Mongolia, based on the figures of macro economy and mining sectors.
According to the economic theories, there are a number of assumptions how mining resource affects the social-economic development. The most serious issue the countries which has natural resource faces is the profits from mining sector leads to currency appreciation, increase in export products, and falling-off of production and export.
There has been a boom in Mongolian mining sectors and putting the mining industries into usage shows a tendency tending to increase in the coming years. We assume that there is a possibility of the Dutch disease in Mongolia due to a huge specific weight of mining sector in total production and profit.
In the research part, we have studied how tugriks affect the rate, using the model of Balasssa Samuelson.
We have done research using OLS methods with the help of logarithm model, accumulating REER from 2006 to Sep 2012, production and export of mining sectors, FDI, foreign aids, government expenditure and rate data of main product of mining sector. To sum up the result, the following symptoms of the Dutch disease have appeared in the Mongolian economy.
 Corden Wax W. and Nyary Peter J., (1982) Booming sector and De-Industrialisation in a Small Open Economy, The economic Journal, Vol.92, No 368, pp. 825-848.
 Mouhamadou Sy. Hamidreza Tabarraei., (2009) Capital inflows and exchange rate in LDCs: The Dutch disease problem revisited, Working paper N 2009-26 pp. 1-32.
Application of threshold autoregressive model to exchange rate of USD in Mongolia
University of the Humanities
Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) models are popular among nonlinear time-series. TAR
models are proposed by Tong (1978) and discussed in detail in Tong and Lim (1980).
Hansen (1997) gives the analytic form of the asymptotic distribution for self-exciting TAR(2) models.
The main goal of my research is to deﬁne whether there is a nonlinearity behaviour in ex-change rate of USD to tugrug. I assume that there is a nonlinearity in rate of USD. Thus, to model nonlinear behaviour in exchange rate of USD, we used self-exciting TAR models with two regimes. The data is monthly average exchange rate of USD covering the period from January, 1993 to March 2013, (Figure 1)
Figure 1: source: The Central Bank of Mongolia
The results of my research is consistent with my hypothesis that the rate of USD is a non-linear process. In addition to the testing of nonlinearity of USD, the threshold variable of the model is deﬁned and values of the next 12 months is predicted according to the model. Matlab is used for the analysis of the research. The regime of the TAR model is built corresponding to economic contractions of exchange rate in Mongolia.
 Hansen, B.E., Inference in TAR Models, Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econo-metrics, 2, 1-14, 1997.
 Hamilton, J.D., Time Series Analysis, Princeton University Press, 1994.
Introduction: Bilingualism is beneficial in development of cognitive function in children. The benefits are not limited to improvements in social communication skills, sensitivity to language structures, details, grammar, conflict solving, creativity, analogical reasoning, classification, cognitive flexibility, inhibition and dementia prevention. However, bilingualism effect on cognitive processing of syntactic and semantic violations is not well understood yet. This study aimed to determine the effect of bilingualism on event related potentials (ERP) during semantic and syntactic violation tasks in children and adolescents.
Methods: 76 Mongolian native speakers were randomly selected from Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia. From them, 36 subjects were bilinguals and 40 were monolinguals (control group), 58% female and 42% male, aged 3-21. Half of the subjects had semantic tasks and half - syntactic. Among 36 bilinguals, 26 were Mongolian-English and 10 were Mongolian-Russian bilinguals. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented to the subjects in pictures, followed by Mongolian sentences one word per time. Auditory stimuli (22 Hz, 60 dB) were recorded in acoustically shielded room by female native speaker 1 word every 2 seconds. Half of the sentences had syntactically or semantically incongruent words and half – congruent words. In semantic tasks the target words were either nouns, verbs or adjectives. The subjects had 64 trials, 3 seconds per one word stimulus. Brain electric waves were measured during the task presentations by using WEEG32 recording Laxtha Inc., Korea) and 21 electrode caps (Electro-cap Inc., USA). The following programs were used for recording and analyzing of the waves: Telescan (Laxtha Inc., Korea), Matlab 2017 (Mathworks Inc., USA), ICA on EEGlab (UCSD, USA), ERPlab (Github Inc., USA), GraphPad Prism (GraphPad software Inc., USA).
Results : In experiments with semantic violation tasks, N400, P300 and P600 are known to be important ERP peaks in semantic tasks and averages of their amplitude and latency were assessed after an onset of stimuli within 350450, 250-350 and 500-800 millisecond (ms) intervals accordingly. This study showed that mono- and bilinguals had significant differences in the electrophysiological analysis of these peaks. Bilingual brain spends significantly lower efforts for processing of semantically incongruent words than monolinguals, but with a same processing speed in terms of N400, P300 and P600. Semantically incongruent words activate a dominant brain hemisphere with differences between mono- and bilinguals. While N400, P300 and P600 were mainly elicited in parietal and occipital sites in monolinguals, in bilinguals they had frontal and parietal involvement. Age of bilinguals and initiation period of their second language study (L2 onset) significantly affected latency, but not the location and power of brain activation. For instance, N400 latency was significantly lower when bilinguals initiated L2 earlier in life well before age 9. Length of L2 exposure (L2 duration) affected only P300 latency and lower latency was associated with longer L2 duration, i.e. 9-13 years. Additionally L2 types (English and Russian) did not affect the ERP results in semantic tasks. In experiments with syntactic violation tasks, the ERP peaks such as ELAN, N400 and P600 are known to be elicited during syntactic tasks and were assessed after the onset of stimuli in the range of 150-250, 350-450 and 500-800 ms accordingly. Similarly to the semantic tasks, in syntactic tasks peak amplitudes were also significantly lower in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Age of the subjects and L2 onset period, but not L2 duration and type, significantly affected expression of ELAN, N400 and P600. Thus, amplitude of peak effects was significantly lower in bilinguals than in monolinguals at their ages 3-6 especially in frontal positions.
Conclusion: Bilingualism is beneficial in cognitive processing of semantic and syntactic tasks in native language. Main benefits can be observed when bilinguals are exposed to their second language earlier in their lives.
Brain processing of syntactic material can be altered by bilingualism  (i.e. mastering of two languages simultaneously). According to Piaget J., cognitive development of children depends on their age and can be divided into 4 stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. However, the effect of bilingualism on brain processing of sentence grammar and structure violations during these development stages in Mongolian bilinguals is not well known. The recent study aimed to investigate brain function in processing of syntactic information by analysing brain peak waves, such as LAN (left anterior negativity), N400 and P600 in Mongolian monolinguals (control group) and bilinguals.
20 Mongolian monolinguals and 18 bilinguals aged 3-21 were randomly chosen from the Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia. From the bilinguals, 13 were Mongolian-English and 5 were MongolianRussian, where English and Russian were their second languages (L2). Quantitative electroencephalography was used to record brain event related potentials (ERP) using WEEG32 (Laxta Inc., Korea) in 21 head positions by using international 10-20 system. Speech was presented to the volunteers as sentences with correct or anomalous syntaxes in native language, one word a time. Independent component analysis was used to obtain clean brain waves free of artefacts. Softwares, such as Telescan, Matlab, EEGlab, ERPlab and GraphPad Prism were used for the analysis.
Results and Discussion:
Bilinguals had lower amplitude power of ELAN, N400 and P600 peaks and higher latency of P600 than monolinguals. This indicates that less effort, but more time is required for processing of speech syntactic violation in bilinguals. Also, the localization of brain activation was different between the two groups in 21 scalp recording sites. ELAN peak is elicited in relation to identification processes of word forms and category , whereas N400 plays a role in identification and integration of semantic and morpho-syntactic information . P600 effect is associated with reanalysis and repair of syntactic input . Thus, amplitude power of these peaks during the syntactic tasks indicate on the brain activation power during the processes of word form/category identification (ELAN), morpho-syntactic integration (N400) and reanalysis/repair (P600) of the syntactic input in the brain. Brain activation during syntactic recognition in spoken and written sentences significantly differed among age groups in both mono- and bilinguals. In “between the groups analysis”, the main difference was observed in children aged 3-6 where amplitudes of all three peaks were significantly higher in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Also, similar amplitude differences in N400 and P600 were at ages 9-12 and in ELAN – at ages 12-15. However, there was no significant amplitude difference at other ages. “Within the groups analysis” showed that monolinguals have highest brain activation, in terms of ELAN, N400 and P600 powers, at ages 3-9 and this decreases with an increase in age. Unlike monolinguals, bilinguals had highest activation at only ages 6-9, but not 3-6. At ages 3-6 they had significantly lower peak amplitude than at ages 6-9 and older. These results suggest that bilinguals spend significantly lower brain power for processing of syntactic violations especially at preoperational stages of development (ages 3-6), differently from the monolinguals. Peak latency of ELAN and N400 did not differ in both groups as well as at various ages. The only latency difference was observed in P600, which was higher in bilinguals than in monolinguals in adolescents (at ages 18-21). Although there was no difference within bilinguals, the monolinguals had a lowest P600 peak latency at ages 9-12 in comparison to other ages. These results indicate that mono- and bilingual children at ages 3-18 process syntactic information with the same speed, however in monolinguals, the quickest processing can occur at late concrete operational stage of development (ages 9-12). L2 onset age, i.e. age at which the second language learning was initiated, had also a significant impact on processing of syntactic information in bilinguals. ELAN, N400 and P600 peak amplitudes were lower at L2 onset ages 3-6 and the lowest amplitude power was detected at L2 onset ages 6-12, in comparison to monolinguals or bilinguals with L2 onset ages below 3. N400 and P600 peak latencies did not alter with various L2 onsets. However, ELAN peak latency was significantly lower when L2 learning was initiated at ages 6-9 in comparison to all other onset ages (data not shown), indicating on the quickest word identification and categorization abilities of bilinguals when L2 learning is initiated at these early ages. Although longer duration of L2 learning can be beneficial (data not shown), the types of L2, such as English and Russian, did not affect the syntactic processing abilities in bilinguals. Thus, the long term benefits of bilingualism in syntactic speech processing can be observed when bilinguals start learning their second language earlier at preoperational and concrete operational stages of cognitive development, i.e. at ages 3-12.
Brain processing of speech syntactic information in native language is less effortful for bilinguals, in comparison to monolinguals. The advantages of bilingualism can be mostly observed when the L2 learning is initiated earlier in their lives – at preoperational and concrete operational stages of their cognitive development.
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